Laboratory for Communications and Applications LCA

Cooperation in Wireless Networks

Why is cooperation an issue?

Traditionally, network protocol designers assume that their protocol will be correctly executed. This cooperation assumption is based on the fact that the devices are controlled by the same authority. However, in emerging self-organizing networks this basic assumption might not hold. In the uncontrolled or vulnerable networking environments, where these networks are typicially deployed, each device is controlled by a potentially selfish participant who can tamper with the networking protocols of its device to exploit the network at the expense of other participants. This behavior is very dangerous since it can lead to the collapse of service provisioning in the network. Thus, motivating the participants to cooperate becomes a key issue in self-organizing networks.

Analysis with Game Theory

In our analytical studies, we mostly rely on the mathematical principles of game theory. Game theory provides a framework to study the behavior of selfish (meaning rational) participants in any strategic interaction. Game theory has been successfully applied to many areas such as economics, biology and political science. In our research, we focus on networking problems where the participants are users who can modify the pre-programmed protocols of their devices.

Cooperation vs. Security

Cooperation and security are closely related issues. A network that is robust against attacks is called secure. A network that is robust against strategic behavior of users is called strategy-proof. In general, the strategy-proof property characterizes a network where cooperation is the most beneficial choice for the users. Accordingly, in the security context the attacker is assumed to be malicious, whereas in a strategy-proof context the participants are selfish. The major difference between the two adversary models is: a malicious attacker wants to jeopardize the operation of the network, but a selfish user wants to exploit it.

Application Areas

We have studied several issues in selfish wireless networking. Our investigations cover several network types such as 802.11 (Wi-Fi), sensor and ad hoc networks. We can relate our work to them as follows.
 

Introduction - tutorial with wireless networking examples [18]
Ad hoc networks - cooperation without incentives [3,5,13]
- incentives for cooperation: currency [1,4]
- incentives for cooperation: reputation system [11,15,16]
Hybrid ad hoc networks - incentives for cooperation [2,14]
Sensor networks - cooperative packet forwarding [9]
Cognitive radio - multi-radio channel allocation [19,23]
Cellular and Wi-Fi networks 
(WWANs and WLANs)
- spectrum sharing in cellular networks [17,20]
- selfish behavior in CSMA/CA [7,10]
- reputation-based Wi-Fi development [6,8]
General networks - reputation in social networks [12]

 

 

Publications


[BOOK] Security and Cooperation in Wireless Networks
L. Buttyan and J.-P. Hubaux
Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007
(pdf draft available until final publication)

[Book Chapter] Spectrum Sharing Games of Network Operators and Cognitive Radios 
M.H. Manshaei, M. Felegyhazi, J. Freudiger, J.-P. Hubaux, and P. Marbach
Cognitive Wireless Networks: Concepts, Methodologies and Visions - Inspiring the Age of Enlightenment of Wireless Communications, Edited by Frank H.P. Fitzek and Marcos Katz, Springer, 2007.

[23] Efficient MAC in Cognitive Radio Systems: A Game-Theoretic Approach
M. Felegyhazi, M. Cagalj, J.-P. Hubaux
in IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, 2009

[22] Optimal Pricing Strategy for  Wireless Social Community Networks
A. Mazloumian, M.H. Manshaei, M. Felegyhazi, and J.-P. Hubaux
in Proceedings of NetEcon'08, August 22, 2008, Seattle, USA 

[21] On Wireless Social Community Networks
M.H. Manshaei, J. Freudiger, M. Felegyhazi, P. Marbach, and J.-P. Hubaux
in Proceedings of Infocom'08, April 15-17, 2008, Phoenix, USA 

[20] Border Games in Cellular Networks
M. Felegyhazi, M. Cagalj, D. Dufour, and J.-P. Hubaux
in Proceedings of Infocom'07, May 6-12, 2007, Anchorage, USA 

[19] Non-cooperative Multi-radio Channel Allocation in Wireless Networks
M. Felegyhazi, M. Cagalj, S. Saeedi Bidokhti, and J.-P. Hubaux
in Proceedings of Infocom'07, May 6-12, 2007, Anchorage, USA 

[18] Game Theory in Wireless Networks: A Tutorial
M. Felegyhazi and J.-P. Hubaux
in EPFL technical report, LCA-REPORT-2006-002, February, 2006 

[17] Wireless Operators in a Shared Spectrum
M. Felegyhazi and J.-P. Hubaux
in Proceedings of Infocom'06, Barcelona, Spain, April 23-29, 2006 

[16] Analysis of a Robust Reputation System for Self-Organised Networks
J. Mundinger and J.-Y. Le Boudec
in European Transactions on Telecommunications, Special Issue on Self-Organisation in Mobile Networking, vol. 16, num. 5 (2005), p. 375-384.

[15] Self-Policing Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks by Reputation
S. Buchegger, J.-Y. Le Boudec
in IEEE Communication Magazine, vol. 43, num. 7 (2005), p. 101. 

[14] Node Cooperation in Hybrid Ad Hoc Networks
N. Ben Salem, L. Buttyan, J.-P. Hubaux and M. Jakobsson
in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing (TMC), volume 5, number 4, April 2006 

[13] Nash Equilibria of Packet Forwarding Strategies in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
M. Felegyhazi, J.-P. Hubaux and L. Buttyan
in IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing (TMC), volume 5, number 5, May 2006 

[12] The Impact of Liars on Reputation in Social Networks
J. Mundinger, J.-Y. Le Boudec
in Proceedings of Social Network Analysis: Advances and Empirical Applications Forum, Oxford, UK, July 2005 

[11] Analysis of a Reputation System for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks with Liars
J. Mundinger, J.-Y. Le Boudec
in Proceedings of The 3rd International Symposium on Modeling and Optimization, Trento, Italy, April 2005 

[10] On selfish behavior in CSMA/CA networks
M. Cagalj, S. Ganeriwal, I. Aad and J.-P. Hubaux
in Proceedings of IEEE Infocom '05, Miami - FL, USA, March 13-17, 2005 

[9] Cooperative Packet Forwarding in Multi-Domain Sensor Networks
M. Felegyhazi, L. Buttyan and J.-P. Hubaux
in Proceedings of PerSeNS 2005, in conjunction with PERCOM 2005, Hawaii, USA, March 12, 2005 

[8] Reputation-based Wi-Fi Deployment - Protocols and Security Analysis
N. Ben Salem, J.-P. Hubaux and M. Jakobsson
in Proceedings of WMASH '04, Philadelphia, USA, October 2004 

[7] DOMINO: A System to Detect Greedy Behavior in IEEE 802.11Hotspots
M. Raya, J. P. Hubaux, I. Aad
in Proceedings of MobiSys 2004, June 2004 

[6] Fuelling WiFi deployment: A reputation-based solution
N. Ben Salem, J.-P. Hubaux and M. Jakobsson
in Proceedings of WiOpt '04, Cambridge, UK, March 2004 

[5] The Effect of Mobility on Cooperation in Ad Hoc Networks (extended abstract)
M. Felegyhazi, J.-P. Hubaux and L. Buttyan
in Proceedings of WiOpt '04, Cambridge, UK, March 2004

[4] Stimulating Cooperation in Self-Organizing Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
L. Buttyan and J.-P. Hubaux
in ACM/Kluwer Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 8, num. 5, 2003 

[3] Equilibrium Analysis of Packet Forwarding Strategies in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - the Static Case
M. Felegyhazi, L. Buttyan and J.-P. Hubaux
in Proceedings of PWC '03, Venice, Italy, September 2003 

[2] A Charging and Rewarding Scheme for Packet Forwarding
N. Ben Salem, L. Buttyan, J.-P. Hubaux and M. Jakobsson
in Proceedings of MobiHoc '03, Annapolis, Maryland, USA, June 2003 

[1] Enforcing Service Availability in Mobile Ad-Hoc WANs
L. Buttyan and J.-P. Hubaux
in Proceedings of MobiHoc '00, Boston, MA, USA, August 2000